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Building Terminology

Cement mixed with asbestos fibres to produce building products, such as roof & fence sheeting, Lining for internal and external use ( FC sheets ) gutters, downpipes & associated mouldings. Commonly used in the building industry before the early 1980’s it hasn’t been used since approx 1995, although even today imported products such decorative stone is reported to have some asbestos

A metal shield or chemically impregnated PVC placed at the top of stumps, piers and walls to help stop undetected termite entry it also brings them to the surface so their mud tubes are visible and can therefore be appropriately treated.

Moulding around doors and/or windows-to cover the joint between the frame and the wall finish used internally and sometimes externally.

Plain or decorated sloping board fixed to a verge or projecting gable to conceal the roof construction

A metal or timber member of roof and/or ceiling sheeting, tiles or other cladding is attached.

Sub-floor structural timber member supporting floor joists

A graded channel located within the perimeter of a building for the discharge of rainwater.

A method of construction in which the external walls consist of a single, non load bearing external skin (or veneer) of brickwork tied to a inner load-bearing framework commonly timer and metal

A ceiling that follows the line of the roof, often with the roof timber exposed.

Two walls constructed from brick or masonry and there is a cavity approximately 50mm forming the external walls of a building. The cavity serves as a way to drain water back out through weep holes at the base of the wall system or above windows. The inner wall is usually load bearing.

Continuous layer of an impervious material covering the bedding surface placed in a masonry wall or between a floor and a wall top to prevent the upward or downward migration of moisture.

Lining attached to framing below the rafters where they extend past the external walls, sometimes referred to as the soffit

Horizontal board attached to ends of trusses or rafters of which guttering is attached.

A strip or sleeve of impervious material dresses, fitted or built-in to provide a barrier to moisture movement, or to divert the travel of moisture , or to cover a joint where water would otherwise penetrate to the interior of a building.

Portion of a wall above the level of the eaves that encloses the end of the space under a pitched roof.

One of a series of parallel beams, usually horizontal and spaced at regular intervals and directly supporting a floor (floor Joist) or a ceiling (ceiling joist).

Opening or hatch fitted to permit entry of a person to roof void and/or under a floor.

Non-combustible building material commonly used in the construction of residential homes, this may consist of clay bricks, concrete bricks or blocks, sand-lime bricks, square dressed natural stone, tile

A mixture of sand and cement (sometimes with lime and additives) placed horizontally and vertical a trowel between the bricks or masonry blocks to form a wall and help bond the bricks together.

Wall that extends up past the roof line.

A column of bricks or concrete supporting a floor or roof structure such as roof beams or bearers.

Concrete or terracotta roofing tile used to cover the ridge of a tiled roof to provide a continous cover and effective weather seal between the two slopes of the roof.

The finishing of mortar joints between ridge capping tiles or gable tiles of a roof.

Structural member used in the construction of a roof being the main supporting beams. The lower section of the rafter extends past the external walls to form part of the eaves, fascia-boards. The gutters are attached to the end of the rafters. Battens are attached to the top of the rafters to support the roof sheeting or tiles. The main rafters are called common rafters.

Ceiling following the same line or angle as the roof, sometimes with the roof beams (structure) being exposed.

Pliable, water resistant membrane for the use beneath the external roof or wall covering to collect and discharge any water that may penetrate, or water vapour that may condense on it.

Horizontal member at the bottom of a window or door frame.

Flat roof without a ridge or peak. Ceiling lining is normally parallel and close to the roof cladding and generally access is not gained to these areas as there is no crawl space.

One of a series of vertical members in a partition or structural members in a load bearing wall.

Space between the underside of a suspended floor and ground.

Prefabricated structural frame supported at each end designed to span large openings usually without additional support. A standard truss consists of a top chord to the raked section with a horizontal bottom chord attached at each to the top chord with webbing running diagonally between the top and bottom chords. Used mainly in the construction of roofs and usually constructed from timber or steel.

Vertical gaps to external brick walls of a building at floor levels to allow moisture seepage through walls to escape and to improve ventilation inside the wall cavity. Weep holes may also be introduced in a retaining wall to drain groundwater from behind the wall and to prevent the build up of hydrostatic pressure and to llower section of retaining walls to avoid build-up of pressure behind the wall.